They said: "This new sub-stratification might eventually help to tailor and target early treatment to patients who would benefit most, thereby representing a first step towards precision medicine in diabetes".
Type 1 is an auto-immune disease which can not now be cured.
Severe autoimmune diabetes is largely the same as the classical type 1.
Dr Emily Burns of Diabetes UK said: 'Type one and type two diabetes are very different conditions but we don't yet know enough about the subtypes that could exist within them.
The new clustering of patients with adult-onset diabetes is superior to the standard diabetes classification as it identifies patients at high risk of diabetic complications at diagnosis, providing information about underlying disease mechanisms and ultimately guiding choice of therapy.
Group 3, the severe insulin-resistant diabetes is characterised by obesity and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes - usually diagnosed in adults - develops when the body can not produce enough insulin the right way.
The outcomes, distributed in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, demonstrated the patients could be separated into five particular groups. Autoimmune diabetes is generally diabetes that is classified traditionally as type 1 diabetes where the body's immune system attacks the pancreatic beta cells and stops the production and release of insulin hormone.
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Cluster 1 describes diabetes similar to Type 1 diabetes wherein it is an autoimmune disease that affects young seemingly healthy people who can not produce insulin. People with this type were overweight, and while still making insulin, their bodies weren't responding to it.
The two other groups have milder types of the disease including one, which includes about 40 percent of the patients, beset with a form of diabetes related to advanced age.
In this latest study, the Swedish and Finnish researchers analysed the medical records of around 15,000 patients newly diagnosed with diabetes. The study found that people with this type most commonly developed eye disease. They found that the risk of kidney complications was substantially increased in patients with SIRD, while the risk of diabetic retinopathy was highest in those with SIDD.
The most common was one of the more moderate forms, seen in the elderly and affecting 39-47% of the patients.
Bunch 2 patients would as of now be named type 2 as they don't have an immune system sickness.
Diabetes is now divided into type 1 diabetes (approximately 10%), type 2 diabetes (85-90%) and several less common diseases like latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and secondary diabetes. "A more accurate diagnosis can be made by also considering the factors accounted for in ANDIS (All New Diabetics In Skåne)".
While the study had limited non-Scandinavian involvement, similar studies are in the works in China and India with people of different ethnic backgrounds. A new classification system could help doctors identify the people most at risk for complications, the study authors say, and could pave the way for more personalized and effective treatments.
Researchers did not observe between-cluster differences for age- and sex-adjusted coronary event and stroke risk, and no genetic variant was associated with all the clusters.